ИДВ РАН  
 
26.05.2020 г.  
The Far Eastern Affairs N1 2020
28.03.2020 21:12

Contents

ROUND TABLE IN THE IFES RAS

“Relations of Japan with the countries East Asia: Problem, Trends, Prospects”

POLITICS

K. Efremova. Integration Processes in Southeast Asia: Evolution of the Regional Complex

D. Streltsov. Political Power in Japan: What Are the Chances of the Opposition?

Liu Fenghua. The Essence of Sino-Russian Strategic Cooperation is Maintaining Stability and Development in the Asia-Pacific Region

A. Vinogradov. Hong Kong – 2019: A Challenge to the “One State – Two Systems” Concept

ECONOMY

Wang Menling, Wei Liyan, Qi Zefeng. Progress in the Modeling of Social Housing in China

S. Lysenko, D. Shcherbakov. “Adult Adoptions” as a Factor of Japanese Firms Longevity

MILITARY BUILD-UP

I. Topchiy. The National Intelligence Agency of the Republic of Korea

HISTORY

A. Ivanov. The Problem of Resolving Border Issues Between Qing China and Korea in the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

I. Tunkina, M. Bukharin. Xinjiang on the Threshold of World War I in the Light of New Archival Documents

V. Sharonova. Russian-Chinese Trade in Hankou during the World War I

E. Khakhalkina, B. Zhigalov. On the Policy of the USSR in Connection with Japanese Aggression in Manchuria in 1931

CULTURE

Duo Limei. Artifacts of the Russian Empire in the Palace Museum (the Forbidden City) in Beijing

L. Stezhenskaya, A. Kostromina. Images of Hong Kong and Shanghai in the Works of Zhang Ailing

RELIGION

T. Ivchenko, L. Kholkina. Translation of the Word “God” into Chinese in the Orthodox Tradition: Linguistic Approach

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

L. Zakharova, Yu. Kulintsev, K. Chirkov, A. Mokretsky. VII International Scientific Conference of Young Orientalists “East Asia: Past, Present and Future”

T.G. Gerasimova. V All-Russian Scientific Conference “Historical Events in the Life of China and the Present”

E. Kranina, E. Lapshina. Dissertations Thesises Defence in the Institute of Far Eastern Studies (RAS) in 2019

Planned Scientific Conference in 2020 with the participation the Institute of Far Eastern Studies (RAS)

BOOK REVIEW

O. Dobrinskaya. Panov A.N., Sarkisov K.O., Streltsov D.V. The History of Japanese Foreign Policy in 1868–2018

SCHOLAR JUBILEE

Jubilee of Galina Veniaminovna Kulikova

Alexander Vladimirovich Picover — 60 Years

Summary

K. Efremova. Integration Processes in Southeast Asia: Evolution of the Regional Complex

The article discusses evolution of the Southeast Asian regional complex, starting from 1940s until today. It covers the complex’ pre-history, evaluating factors, which stimulated the formation of the collective regional identity. The article gives a characteristic of functional development of intra-ASEAN cooperation on each of these stages. The concept of the ASEAN Community and its constituting elements are discussed further on. The narrative proceeds with a short sketch of ASEAN mechanisms, their historical evolution and the contemporary state. It is noted that ASEAN collective efforts for intensification of intra-regional ties, as well as the intentional construction of a specific ASEAN identity confined by Southeast Asian borders, are very important for the regional complex development.

Key words: ASEAN, ASEAN Community, Southeast Asia, integration, regional complex, regional cooperation.

D. Streltsov. Political Power in Japan: What Are the Chances of the Opposition?

As a result of the 2017 and 2019 parliamentary elections, the LDP and Komeito coalition have again secured a stable majority in both houses of Japanese Parliament. The author analyzes the causes of electoral failures of the opposition, including such factors as the predominance of a significant conservative segment among the electorate, the growth of populism in society and the demand for charismatic leaders, as well as Abe's skillful use of media opportunities. The author views an electoral opportunity for the opposition in future in putting forward an attractive alternative program in the sphere of social policy.

Key words: Japan, the party system, the opposition, the neo-conservative values, clientelism, "catch-all party", electoral coordination.

Liu Fenghua. The Essence of Sino-Russian Strategic Cooperation is Maintaining Stability and Development in the Asia-Pacific Region

In the next decade the security and development environment around China and Russia will deteriorate, therefore, the strategic coordination in the Asia-Pacific region has become the key to all-round strategic coordination between China and Russia. Its focus is to maintain regional stability and the trend of integration, including maintaining stability in the Asia-Pacific region, promoting synergies between the “Belt and Road” and the Eurasian Economic Union, developing the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and promoting economic integration in the region. If the strategic coordination between China and Russia in the Asia-Pacific region is effective, it will create a peaceful and integrated environment for them and respective neighbors, thus ensuring that China basically achieves modernization and Russia realizes the development and revitalization of the Far East. At the same time, China should create a decade’s peace favorable environment for its rise, it can’t count completely on strategic cooperation with Russia. More reliable is to count on its comprehensive national strength, strong will and clever diplomacy. Especially, China should be more self-reliant in the solution of the Taiwan issue, and the Diaoyu islands and the South China Sea territorial waters disputes.

Key words: Sino-Russian relations, regional stability, integration in Asia-Pacific area, strategic coordination.

A.Vinogradov. Hong Kong — 2019: A Challenge to the “One State — Two Systems” Concept

Mass protests in Hong Kong in 2019 became a part of the growing opposition movement to the reunification with the PRC in 1997. Half time allotted by the 1984 Joint Declaration between the UK and the PRC for the gradual reunification with the PRC in 2047 has passed. Despite the close and mutually beneficial economic ties the reunification of the two systems does not occur. On the contrary, a conflict of identities is growing in the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong. The Hongkong citizens strive to maintain their autonomy and civil liberties. These sentiments are especially strong among the younger generation, which is the main driving force of the protests. The victory of the opponents to the integration with Beijing in the District Council elections in November 2019 could be the beginning of the formation of political opposition to the course for reunification with Chine and cast doubt on the fundamental feasibility of the concept “One State — Two Systems”, the prospects of its extension to relations with Taiwan, and also create a threat to the realization of the "Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation" and the restoration of its world-building functions in the international arena.

Key words: 2019 Hong Kong protests, “One State — Two Systems”, China, world-building functions, integration in East Asia.

Wang Menling, Wei Liyan, Qi Zefeng. Progress in the Modeling of Social Housing in China

The new challenges presented by the Chinese guaranteed social housing program are to achieve the goals of universal provision it for all citizens in need. Given the state support and the practical experience of reform in Xiamen, Shanghai, Beijing and some other cities, the authors analyze a model of social rental housing and co-ownership, offer a common vision for the development of affordable housing that is undergoing a successful experimental verification in China.

Key words: Xiamen, guaranteed social housing, problems of contract termination, quality of housing services.

S. Lysenko, D. Shcherbakov. “Adult Adoptions” as a Factor of Japanese Firms Longevity

The article discusses the phenomenon of “adult adoptions” in Japan, as well as the main historical and social aspects of this phenomenon. The types of inheritance of property in Japanese family companies are also analyzed. In addition, the authors provide a detailed description of the structure of Japanese households. The largest Japanese corporations using the mechanism of "adult adoptions" are also considered in the paper. In conclusion, the authors state the effectiveness of these mechanisms in comparison with traditional types of inheritance of property.

Key words: SME, Japan, family business, family enterprise, Japan, heir, family adoption, adult adoption.

I. Topchiy. The National Intelligence Agency of the Republic of Korea.

The article analyzes the state of affairs in the most important tool of the government of the Republic of Korea (RK) — the National Intelligence Agency (NIA). It covers the history of the formation and development of this organization, the specifics of its functioning today, problems and prospects. The shortcomings of the specified “presidential” intelligence service, its active role in interfering in the country's political life are noted. The author notes the underestimation of the potential of NIA in open sources, the secrecy of real capabilities of this organization.

Key words: Republic of Korea, National Intelligence Agency, special services, reforms, intelligence, internal struggle, legislation, history.

A. Ivanov. The Problem of Resolving Border Issues between Qing China and Korea in the Late XIX — Early XX Centuries

At the end of the XIX century on the Chinese-Korean border the situation was aggravating in connection with the mass migration of Koreans to lands north of the Tuman River and Amrok River. The Qing authorities have taken a series of measures to curb the further settlement and development by Korean immigrants of the territories bordering on Korea. In response, the Korean government raised the question of the illegality of China’s claims in the territory north of the Tuman River and tried to involve the Chinese side in the negotiation process, during which it intended to insist on a joint exploration of the Chinese-Korean borders, which had not been conducted since 1712.

Key words: Chinese-Korean border, Tuman River, Amnok River, the border issue.

I. Tunkina, M. Bukharin. Xinjiang on the Threshold of World War I in the Light of New Archival Documents

The volatile situation in the Far East had necessitated joint efforts between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the military command to conduct intelligence in China’s border territories. Russian consuls, in particular in Xinjiang, played significant role in this process. According to a new archival documents from the St. Petersburg branch of the Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences (Fond of S.F. Oldenburg), Russian diplomats were considering the possibility that Xinjiang could become a way of moving troops to one of the combat fronts. In the end, fears of ending up in the territory of the fighting led to the end of works of the Second Russian Turkestan expedition.

Key words: the Far East, foreign policy, Xinjiang, World War I, S.F. Oldenburg, archaeological expedition.

V. Sharonova. Russian-Chinese Trade in Hankou during the World War I

The article describes the activities of the Russian merchants in Hankou during the World War I. In this difficult period of time for Russia there was the highest increase in tea export and the year of 1915 was the peak in tea purchases for the entire long-term period of the Russian-Chinese tea trade. Due to the revolution in 1917 and the outbreak of the civil war the Russian Trading Houses in Hankou and other Chinese cities were forced to stop supply of tea products to Russia.

Key words: Hankou, Russian merchants, tea, war, export, concession.

E. Khakhalkina, B. Zhigalov. On the Policy of the USSR in Connection with Japanese Aggression in Manchuria in 1931

The article discusses the actions of the Soviet government in connection with the Japanese invasion to Manchuria, which was detrimental to the economic and geopolitical interests of the USSR in the Far East. These actions were of a “defensive" nature, which was caused by the military weakness of the USSR in this region and the desire to maintain good relations with Japan. Specifically, this was expressed in numerous concessions to Japan, culminating in the sale of the CER and the USSR’s departure from Manchuria.

Key words: Far Eastern policy of the USSR, Manchu crisis of 1931, Sino-Eastern Railway, Manzhou-Go.

Duo Limei. Artifacts of the Russian Empire in the Palace Museum (the Forbidden City) in Beijing

Imperial Palace of the Qing dynasty possesses a group of artifacts of the Russian Empire, which are not regularized and have not been studied. Among them, silver art products of the most famous suppliers of jewelry for the Royal court — Faberge, Ovchinnikov and Grachev — are stored in the Palace Museum. Some of these products are gifts that were presented to the Empress mother Cixi, Emperor, Empress and officials of the Qing dynasty by the Russian Prince Ukhtomsky, sent by Tsar Nicholas II in 1897 to China for an audience with Emperor Guangxu. The author of this article examines the artifacts related to Russia in the Palace Museum in accordance with historical documentation and identifies the origin of these artifacts, trying to provide a valuable reference to the Chinese-Russian relations in the Pro-Russian era and the period of "Union with Russia".

Key words: Russian artifacts, Ukhtomsky, Faberge, Ovchinnikov, Grachev, imperial palace.

L. Stezhenskaya, A. Kostromina. Images of Hong Kong and Shanghai in the works of Zhang Ailing

The article analyses the image of Hong Kong and Shanghai in the works of a Chinese writer of the XX century Zhang Ailing. Hong Kong and Shanghai appear to be large modern cities with a developed transport system, an abundance of “third spaces” and problems peculiar only to large cities, such as loneliness and the domination of the intellect. But the societies of these cities are depicted in two different ways: Shanghai citizens are represented as supporters of traditional views, while Hong Kong citizens are portrayed as representatives of modern society.

Keywords: Zhang Ailing, Chinese literature, Chinese literature of XX century, Shanghai style, haipai, Shanghai literature.

T. Ivchenko, L. Kholkina. Translation of the Word “God” into Chinese in the Orthodox Tradition: Linguistic Approach

The article analyzes the existing translations of the word “God” into Chinese (Tianzhu, Shen and Shangdi) from the viewpoint of etymology, meaning in the modern language, morphological features, frequency and compatibility, as well as confessional specificity. A review of the etymology of the word “God” shows that the historical connection with paganism is usual for this word and does not affect modern usage. Tianzhu is associated exclusively with the Catholic tradition and therefore is unacceptable for use in the Orthodox Church. Shen tends to be used as part of complex words and is very rich in polysemy, turning out to be an inappropriate option. Thus, based on the established tradition and on all the linguistic arguments, the most appropriate option for translating the word “God” in the Orthodox tradition is Shandi.

Key words: God, Chinese language, translation, shàngdì, shén, tiānzhǔ.

 
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