ИДВ РАН  
 
17.09.2019 г.  
The Far Eastern Affairs N2 2019
25.04.2019 13:44

Contents

POLITICS

K. Asmolov. Relationship in the Sino-Korean «Triangle»

B. Kondorsky. Historical, Economic, Political and Ideological Backgrounds for the Chinese Project of “Silk Road Economic Belt”

THE 40TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PRC AND THE USA

Yu. Dubinin. On the History of the Establishment of Modern US-China Relations

A. Davydov. Ideology and Pragmatism in Establishing and Strengthening Sino-American Relations

A. Voloshina. China in the “Pacific Pivot” of the United States

V. Petrovsky. US-China Trade Wars: Economy or Geopolitics?

Ya. Leksyutina. «Trade Wars» and the Struggle for Renewal of World Economic Order

S. Trush. D. Trump and China: Intermediate Results

ECONOMY

A. Ostrovsky. The PRC Law on Individual Income Tax

A. Shurubovich. Economic Relations between Belarus and China: Status, Trends, Problems

L. Zakharova. Modern DPRK Economy and Prospects for Its Transformation

Ya. Mishchenko. Trade and Economic Cooperation between Japan and the ASEAN Countries: Bilateral and Multilateral Formats

THEORY AND METHODOLOGY

N. Bedareva. Partnership Diplomacy of China: Levels of Partnerships

ROUND TABLE IN THE IFES RAS

Vietnam-China Relations: a Difficult Search for Consent

HISTORY

G. Romanova. The «Opening» of China by the Capitalist World and the Beginningof Modernization of the Country (the Second Half of the XIX Century)

Ye. Yakovkin. «Killed at Nomonhan»: Creation of the Hero Cult as an Example of Anti-Soviet Propaganda among the Russian Far Eastern Emigration (1939–1945)

CULTURE

O. Zavyalova. Putonghua: from the «Language of Officials» to the Language of the Middle Class

A. Isaev. China’s Cooperation with the USSR and Russia in the Field of Cinematography (1949–2019)

A. Donchenko. The Importance of Traditional Chinese Calligraphy in Modern Society

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS

L. Zakharova, K. Chirkov, Yu. Kulintsev, A. Mokretsky. «East Asia in Changing World». (The VI International Conference of Young Orientalists)

BOOK REVIEW

A. Lukyanov, L. Stezhenskaya. Mengzi: the New Translation with the Classic Comments by Zhao Qi and Zhu Xi

N. Koledenkova. Sazonov S.L. China’s Transport: Place and Role in National Economic Development

Summary

K. Asmolov. Relationship in the Sino-Korean “Triangle”

Beijing’s policy in respect of the two Koreas may be called “equally oriented”: the improvement of Chinese relations with the North Korea doesn’t lead to the decline of cooperation with the South.

The relationship between China and the DPRK demonstrate a high level of contacts in both the political and economic spheres. But in the case of further strengthening of the US-PRC confrontation, China will reduce the interaction with ROK and the USA on the issues of denuclearization and weaken the sanctions pressure on North, trying to control the speed of rapprochement with America. Pyongyang is trying to ensure its freedom of maneuvering.

Relations between China and South Korea now returned to the level of interaction that was reached before the deployment of the US THAAD missile defense system in South Korea.

Key words: PRC, DPRK, ROK, Sino-Korean relations, international security, denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

B. Kondorsky. Historical, Economic, Political and Ideological Backgrounds for the Chinese Project of “Silk Road Economic Belt”

To analyze the concept of the “Silk Road Economic Belt” implemented by China, a systematic, integrated approach was used. Special attention is paid to the historical background. The basic provisions of the theory of revolutionary period were applied. China (as well as Russia) belongs to the third generation countries, in which the nature of political and economic development is markedly different from that in Western countries. These countries are characterized by relapses of the past, especially in China. In modern China this was manifested, first of all, in the Renaissance of Confucianism. The role of such phenomena in the formation of the “Silk Road Economic Belt” project is shown.

Key words: Silk Road Economic Belt, domestic and foreign policy of modern China, «Chinese dream», geopolitical space, revolutionary period.

Yu. Dubinin. On the History of the Establishment of Modern US-China Relations

US-China relations suffered serious changes in the XX Century. They were developing from America’s protests against Japan’s aggressive actions in China based on the principle of “Open door” policy in 1930s, through the close US-China alliance in the war in the Pacific and a great power status for China in 1940s and finally terminated with US refusal to recognize the PRC and proclaiming the “containment and isolation” policy. The impasse in US-China relations was resolved after President Nixon’s visit to China in 1972.

Key words: USA, China, US-China relations, Shanghai communique, R. Nixon.

A. Davydov. Ideology and Pragmatism in Establishing and Strengthening Sino-American Relations

The article presents an overview of the main stages of rapprochement between China and the United States and the establishment of relations between the two countries after long years of alienation and hostility. An attempt is made to analyze the relationship between pragmatic and ideological motivations in the process of this rapprochement, which ended in 1979 with the establishment of diplomatic relations between the United States of America and the People’s Republic of China. The main reasons of the American-Chinese disagreements at the present stage are described. The prospects for the future development of relations between the two countries are briefly analyzed.

Key words: USA, China, pragmatism, ideology, diplomatic relations, bilateral relations, development prospects.

A. Voloshina. China in the “Pacific Pivot” of the United States

In 2011, the President Obama’s administration officially put forward a geopolitical initiative, which is known under the name of “Pivot” or “Rebalancing”. The most important element of this strategy, designed to guarantee America’s dominant position in the Asia-Pacific region, was the forging of constructive relations with China. In this article the author attempts to reveal how America’s policy towards China has been developed and implemented in the context of “Pivot”. The analysis allows to make conclusions about the transformation of “Pivot” due to the change of American administrations. The question whether the strategy has been effective in terms of the achieving of the US goals is raised.

Key words: the US, China, “Pivot”, the Asia-Pacific region, the Indo-Pacific region, the Obama administration, D. Trump.

V. Petrovsky. US-China Trade Wars: Economy or Geopolitics?

Trade and economic disputes between China and the USA have a long history, but now it became evident that the protectionist policy of Donald Trump contrasts the consistent policy of China in favor of the free trade principles based on the WTO rules. Washington views Beijing as its main strategic competitor in all spheres, including trade and economy. The US unleashed the trade war against China also to weaken a growing competitor in the high-tech sphere by non-economic means.

Key words: trade and economic relations, the WTO rules and principles, protectionism, trade wars, strategic competition, dialectics of competition and cooperation.

Ya. Leksyutina. «Trade Wars» and the Struggle for Renewal of World Economic Order

In August 2017 the US President D. Trump launched under the Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 an investigation of China’s policies on intellectual property, technology transfer, and innovation. Since July 2018, the United States has unilaterally implemented three rounds of tariff increases under Section 301 on a total of $250 billion worth of Chinese products and restricted China’s investments in US economy. The article explains the logic of D. Trump’s trade policy, his motivation behind the initiation of “trade wars”, and his vision of the desired world economic order.

Key words: China, US, “trade war”, China’s rise, international economic system, protectionism, D. Trump, US-China relations.

S. Trush. D. Trump and China: Intermediate Results

China, the US-China relations have become the special topic for the Trump administration, сombining the factors of domestic and international political agenda. The US Security Strategy in 2017 for the first time characterized China as the «strategic competitor». Amidst the «trade war» China has the right to secure the basic principles of national economic order, those not contradicting to the rules of the WTO. China is not ready yet to adjust the model and structure of its economy to fit into the international value chains and dominate in such chains the way America does. The symptom of the “cold war” is gaining momentum in the US –China relations. Their differences in values, ideology, historical experience are becoming more visible.

Key words: US-China relations, trade war, Trump administration, globalization.

A. Ostrovsky. The PRC Law on Individual Income Tax

On August31, 2018 amendments to the PRC Law on individual income tax were adopted. The amendments propose the increase of progressive income tax for individuals with incomes higher than the average. At the same time the minimal non-taxable yearly income increased and the individuals with incomes below 60000 yuan per year (about 5000 yuan per month) were given tax-free status.

Key words: The PRC Law on individual income tax, progressive income tax, population living standard, wages, income tax rate, privileges for different population strata, aggregate yearly income.

A. Shurubovich. Economic Relations between Belarus and China: Status, Trends, Problems

The article presents condition, trends and problems of the Belorussian-Chinese economic relations. The prospects of their development are evaluated. Importance of mutual cooperation for both countries is revealed. Considerable progress achieved in their development during the last years is noted. Particular attention is devoted to participation of Belarus in the project of “Silk Road Economic Belt” (SREB), where it is supposed to become an important transportation and logistic hub. Difficulties in economic relationship are marked, including raw materials character of Belorussian export to China and not favourable investment climate in Belarus.

Key words: Belarus, China, economic relations, mutual trade, investment, transit, the Silk Road Economic Belt.

L. Zakharova. Modern DPRK Economy and Prospects for Its Transformation

The article analyzes the key trends in the development of the North Korean economy and the main principles of its operation. The prospects of further transformation of the country’s economic structure are revealed. Applying the system approach and modeling methods the author constructs a model of the modern DPRK economy which consists of different sectors depending on key management principles and coordination mechanism. Prospects of the system’s transformation are considered within four suggested scenarios based on the combination of the main internal and external factors.

Key words: DPRK, economy, model, economy structure, sanctions, socialism, market economy.

Ya. Mishchenko. Trade and Economic Cooperation between Japan and the ASEAN Countries: Bilateral and Multilateral Formats

The article analyzes the current state of trade and economic relations between Japan and the ASEAN countries. The author conducted the comprehensive analysis of main forms of economic relations between two sides — trade, investment, official development assistance — during the first two decades of the XXI Century. The latest statistics for 2017 from the original Japanese sources are used. Among the ASEAN countries key partners of Japan in each of main three areas of economic cooperation are singled out, the latest trends of its current state of development are recorded. An analysis of the most relevant and effective formats of multilateral cooperation between Japan and ASEAN in the XXI Century is carried out.

Key words: Japan, ASEAN, Southeast Asia, trade, official development assistance, investment.

N. Bedareva. Partnership Diplomacy of China: Levels of Partnerships

Nowadays China pursues the construction of broad partnership network on international level. The article analyses the partnership system, level structure of it and its character features. By means of the linguistic analysis method the level-forming components defining hierarchy of the levels of partnership system are revealed. Their classification reflects current state of the partnership system of the People's Republic of China with other countries in 2018.

Key words: diplomacy of partnership, levels of partnership, network of partnership, Chinese foreign policy, comprehensive partnership and strategic cooperation.

G. Romanova. The “Opening” of China by the Capitalist World and the Beginning of Modernization of the Country (the Second Half of the XIX Century)

The article deals with the first stage of Chinese modernization, which began in the second half of the XIX Century under the influence of an external factor as a result of the forced “opening” of the country by the leading Western powers. The exogenous type of economic modernization of China is emphasized. The article stresses recent changes in the scientific assessments related to the process of “China opening”, which had an impact on the accelerated development of the country along the capitalist path and was a stimulus for its modernization.

Key words: economic modernization of China, colonial policy, capitalist Powers, foreign trade, industrial revolution, foreign capital, traditional society.

Ye. Yakovkin. “Killed at Nomonhan”: Creation of the Hero Cult as an Example of Anti-Soviet Propaganda among the Russian Far Eastern Emigration (1939–1945)

The article describes the death of the Russian emigrant M. Natarov in the military conflict of 1939 near the Khalkhin-Gol River, in which representatives of emigration participated on the side of Japan. The example of creation of the hero cult of a person who died in battles with the Soviet troops, the methods and effectiveness of propaganda activities of emigrant organizations and Japanese military-administrative bodies in the territory of Manchuria are analyzed.

Key words: Russian emigration, Asano detachment, Manchukuo, military conflict on the Khalkhin-Gol River, Kwantung army, Harbin.

O. Zavyalova. Putonghua: from the “Language of Officials” to the Language of the Middle Class

Knowledge and usage of the official Chinese language — Mandarin — is an aspiration of most of the residents in contemporary China. By creating a “middle-income society” the Chinese State spreads the official Chinese language among the less educated poor. In parallel, efforts are being made to preserve the rich linguistic heritage and linguistic diversity of the multi-ethnic and multi-dialect country.

Key words: language policy, spread of Putonghua, Chinese dialects, “society of average prosperity”, poverty eradication.

A. Isaev. China’s Cooperation with the USSR and Russia in the Field of Cinematography (1949–2019)

The article analyses the main stages, forms and development trends of bilateral cooperation between the USSR/Russia and China in cinema industry over the last 70 years. The author demonstrates that each of these periods introduced brand new elements into the cultural interaction of the two countries using the capabilities of film-making as the most popular art form. Nowadays the cooperation of the two countries in the field of cinema relies upon the experience gained over a long period of time that forms a solid foundation for its further development.

Key words: Russian-Chinese cooperation, cultural ties, cinematic cooperation, joint film production, film distribution, modern technologies in cinema, humanitarian communication.

A. Donchenko. The Importance of Traditional Chinese Calligraphy in Modern Society

The art of Chinese calligraphy has a long and continuous history of development and is still an important part of Chinese culture. The article touches upon some issues related to the place and role of calligraphy in modern Chinese society.

Key words: China, calligraphy, traditional culture, fine arts.

 
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